3D printing after 20 years of development, has successively into areas such as aerospace, construction, medical treatment, to reduce costs, save energy and innovative manufacturing has played a huge role, the scope of its application also will be more broad.
At the 2016 Berlin air show, Airbus launched Thor, the world's first 3D printing aircraft.The plane's body is 3.9 meters long and weighs just 21 kilograms (46 pounds), and its non-electronic parts, such as thrusters and landing devices, are made of polyamide.After the application of 3D printing technology in aircraft manufacturing, it can save fuel and reduce the waste generated by ordinary aircraft making, thus achieving the purpose of protecting the environment.3 d printing after 20 years of development, has successively into areas such as aerospace, construction, medical treatment, to reduce costs, save energy and innovative manufacturing has played a huge role, the scope of its application also will be more broad.
Additive manufacturing technology is a new manufacturing technology developed in the late 1980s.In the past, additive manufacturing technology has also been referred to as "material accumulative manufacturing", "rapid prototyping", "layered manufacturing", "entity free manufacturing" and "3D printing technology".Broadly speaking, on the basis of 3 d CAD design data, the material (including liquid and powder material, wire or a piece of wood, etc.) to automatically added together to become a manufacturing method of entity structure, can be regarded as material manufacturing technology.Compared with the manufacturing technology of additive manufacturing, which is represented by mill milling and milling, it has a short development time but great potential.It in principle to solve the problems of traditional manufacturing technology controlled by structural complexity, implementation from material microstructure to macrostructure of controllable fabrication, leading manufacturing technology to the integration of "made in design - material -" development.
Increase material manufacturing technology features do not need the traditional cutting tool, fixture and multi-channel processing working procedure, using the 3 d design data on one device can quickly and accurately create arbitrarily complex shape parts, realizes "the freedom to make", solve many difficult to manufacture complex structure parts of forming the past issues, and effectively reduce the processing process, shorten the processing cycle.The advantages are:
(1) is suitable for the rapid manufacturing complex structure, can make the traditional manufacturing technology processing (such as the blades of free surface, complex flow channel, etc.) or even to processing (such as a three-dimensional grid structure, the empty structure, etc.) of complex structure, in the aerospace, automotive/mould and biomedical and other fields has a broad application prospect.
(2) the traditional mass and batch production need to do a lot of preparation technology, and a number of tools, equipment and tool manufacturing resources, increase material manufacturing technology in the rapid production and flexibility advantages, suitable for jewelry, human organs, cultural creativity, and other personalized product customization production and small batch production, can significantly reduce the personalization, customization, and innovative design of the manufacturing cost.
Suitable for high value-added products manufacturing.At present, additive manufacturing technology is mainly applied to research and development and design verification and personalized manufacturing before large-scale production of high value-added products such as aerospace and biological medicine.
Both the world's science and technology powers and emerging countries will foster and support the technology of additive manufacturing as a new growth point for future industry development to seize the commanding heights of the future technology industry.In 2012, the United States proposed a "revitalization of manufacturing" strategy. It listed additive manufacturing as the first start-up project and established the national institute of additive manufacturing (NAMII).The United States government has supported the technology of additive manufacturing as the primary strategic task of national manufacturing development.The eu countries recognize the important role and great potential of additive manufacturing technology in the development of industry and the country as a whole.The German government clearly supports the development and innovation of a new generation of revolutionary technologies, including laser additive manufacturing, in the "high-tech strategy 2020" and "industry 4.0".
The Australian government has promoted the establishment of a collaborative research centre for additive manufacturing to facilitate collaborative research driven by end-users.The government announced in the 2013 budget that it would spend $500 million to develop technology for additive manufacturing.The Japanese government allocated 4 billion yen in the 2014 budget, which was carried out by the ministry of economy, industry and industry to carry out the manufacturing revolution with the core of additive manufacturing technology.In June 2014, the government announced the creation of an industrial development commission for additive manufacturing, which approved a master plan aimed at getting South Korea to lead in the field of additive manufacturing.The development of additive manufacturing is driving the world's new round of technology and industry competition.
In the outlook 2025 report released by McKinsey & company in 2013, it listed additive manufacturing technology as one of the 12 disruptive technologies to determine the future economy.Increase material manufacturing technology through materials, laser, information, technology, equipment and application of intersection, break through the manufacturing process, is extended, in the direction of intelligent, customized service, can solve the traditional manufacturing technology cannot solve the problem of the complex structure of rapid manufacturing.Add material manufacturing technology in the aerospace, biomedical, automotive, consumer electronics, cultural creativity, and other fields has a huge space for development, will bring revolutionary change to manufacturing technology, become a sharp tool of innovation and entrepreneurship.
Additive manufacturing technology provides historic opportunities for the development and upgrading of China's manufacturing industry.After 30 years of reform and opening up, China has become a manufacturing power.However, the overcapacity of manufacturing capacity and the severe deficiency of product innovation and development capacity have become the bottleneck restricting the development of China's manufacturing industry.Promoting innovation and entrepreneurship is our core task in the future, and the technology of additive manufacturing has created great space for innovation and entrepreneurship.
Additive manufacturing technology has opened up huge space for innovation.3 d printing is suitable for application in complex shape structure, many varieties of small batch manufacturing, make the design to get rid of the constraints of traditional technology, to the innovation design released huge space, at the same time can speed up the development of new products.Additive manufacturing technology provides unlimited business opportunities for entrepreneurship.Add material manufacture with distribution of new pattern, namely through the network platform, realize the personalized orders, creates the customer design, manufacturing equipment, the production mode, can effectively achieve the maximum of social resources, to provide technical support for universal entrepreneurship.
In order to promote the cross - revolutionary development of the discipline, the development of micro-metallurgical experiment platform is applied to the study of material gene and to create new alloy materials.Development of organ reconstruction through cell printing, tissue engineering and gene printing.Through the construction of stem cell test bed, rapid and efficient stem cell induction experiment to realize the leap forward development of life science.Additive manufacturing technology also brings great opportunities for the development and upgrading of China's manufacturing industry.The bottleneck of China's manufacturing industry is the manufacturing capacity surplus and the product development capacity is seriously insufficient.The application of additive manufacturing in various fields is an important means to develop high technology service industry, adjust manufacturing structure and promote manufacturing industry.
In recent years, additive manufacturing technology has achieved rapid development in basic research, key technology and industrial development.In terms of basic research, new techniques, new principles, new materials and new applications are emerging, and space 3 d printing, 3 d printing, 3 d printing, food, 3 d printing, buildings, print and other new concepts appear constantly, from traditional manufacturing to all areas of social development.In 2014, the global production of additive manufacturing equipment and services increased 35.2%, with the desktop maintaining a high growth rate of 92.5%.Additive manufacturing technology presents the rapid growth momentum from industrial products to consumer goods.Under the Internet, the prototype of the people's innovation industry has been presented.New materials and new technology are the core driving force of the technology to maintain vitality and sustainable development.With the development of increased material manufacturing process, the use of material from the very beginning of liquid photosensitive resin, expanded to a wide variety of engineering plastics, metal powder materials, and gradually mature, carry out application.The development of additive manufacturing technology relies on the innovation of energy, materials and interactive methods, and involves the interdisciplinary fields of machinery, materials, physics and mechanics.In the future, the technology and equipment based on metal materials, non-metallic materials and biological materials are the main direction of development and application.