Hybrid cars can provide both safe and reliable transport, with less fuel and less emissions.The low fuel consumption of hybrid vehicles has been recognized, but it has been somewhat frustrated by the impact of some related and unrelated factors.But change has quietly taken place.
Hybrid vehicles continue to develop and become increasingly attractive to mass consumers.Hybrid cars are no longer the design of thin, square and Spartan gifts.They have become fashionable, capacious and powerful representatives, rivaling some of the top cars.
The technology of hybrid cars has changed and improved, and will continue to be updated and developed.New technologies are expected to further enhance efficiency and enhance driving experience.The next generation of products will be designed to be cleaner and more attractive.
The long and tortuous way forward
The launch of the Toyota prius in 1997 marked the start of a transition to all-electric vehicles.Proved that compared with the traditional cars, use of electric cars can reduce about 50% of the emissions, and the use of electric motor, the charging system and cut off power supply when parking, can prolong automobile mileage.
The focus on greenhouse gas emissions is a major driver of innovation and development in hybrid vehicles.Emissions of greenhouse gases from cars have fallen sharply (see chart 1), as fuel standards and hybrid vehicles reduce carbon dioxide emissions.
Figure 1: the emission curve of 1997 has reached its peak. After introducing fuel standards and hybrid vehicles, the curve begins to decline
The instability of fossil fuels and the promotion of energy prices have also promoted the development of more effective alternative technologies.Many areas such as alternative energy and hybrid cars are.Because of the cyclical nature of oil prices, a long period of low oil prices can successfully suppress competitors.
In the past few years, hybrid cars have survived the low oil price cycle.Although sales of big trucks and urban assault vehicles have increased significantly, the new generation of vehicles is not consumed by oil, and many people still remember gas rationing.Perhaps that is why the hybrid car market is not in recession but is booming.
Today, almost all car companies can offer hybrid cars, and industry leaders will further drive hybrid development.That could be a good thing, because oil prices could rise again.
Better technology means better sales
Cars are usually divided into different types, and the boundaries of each type are blurred.Moreover, selling prices does not always reflect quality and reliability.Some cars sold for commercial gain are not superior products.However, new technologies and new features are being packaged.
Hybrid vehicles range from small, ultra-high-mileage eco-cars to big trucks and suvs that use hybrid technology.Top small cars include Toyota, Honda, Chevrolet, nissan, hyundai, etc.Top big suvs include porsche, tesla and lexus.Luxury models such as lexus, tesla and BMW are also included.
The key innovation point for hybrid and all-electric vehicles is battery technology, which is the first area to be continuously improved.So far, the new Chevrolet bolt 300km (200 miles) range car is the best product.But it's not enough to promote all-electric cars to the masses.
In terms of power, the strongest car can reach 100 kw, but it cannot be maintained during its operation.In cities and highways, most cars run at about 7.5 kilowatts.Light and natural gas engines are usually less efficient (~ 20%).The hybrid power makes a smaller, more efficient engine run at optimal speed.This means that the power of the hybrid engine is equal to 1/10 to 1/4 of the power of the gas engine.
There are two ways to do this.One is that an oil engine runs only at optimal speed to recharge the battery or provide a real-time power drive.This is a hybrid of serial style, since energy is converted from gas to electric and human energy in a serial manner.Most hybrids are serial.
The second is the parallel method.In this case, the gas engine will not only charge the battery pack under the light load, but also transmit the power to the transmission system.In this way, the mileage decreases, but the performance is better.
The parallel approach allows the engine and regenerative braking to recharge the battery when slide downhill or stop, but parallel method means higher cost of transmission system will be more complex, and may limit the position of the engine.Toyota and Honda have built models based on parallel configurations.
Both design methods are feasible, but still depend on the underlying battery technology.So far, Toyota has mainly sold nickel-metal, a hydride battery pack, but is transitioning to a lithium-based energy battery.Lithium is the smallest metal with the highest energy density.But there are also many problems.We've all heard about equipment explosions, fire, and even the deaths of lithium-ion batteries.However, lithium battery technology is developing continuously.At the moment, Toyota's newly released car can ensure 160000km (100,000 miles) of mileage.
The new technology in the lab could increase the capacity of each charging battery pack to 800 kilometers (500 miles). If standardization is achieved, switching the battery pack could be a way to replace the charging station infrastructure.Charging stations turn into stores that recharge and replace batteries.If you have enough battery pack on hand, you can save time on charging.
The future of battery technology is bound to create a wave of electric vehicles that will be able to charge instantly and safely store high energy density.The electric car's pollution is equivalent to a well-adjusted internal combustion engine, and the hybrid car's pollution is equivalent to 1/8, so the hybrid technology is an ideal step towards the transition to electric cars.
However, unless the technology is solid and the infrastructure is in place, hybrid cars will last for a long time.Hybrid cars will stay on the ground for a long time, as electric cars require a time-consuming recharging or battery exchange after a hundred miles of driving.
The coupling between the motor and the power transmission system can produce more efficient driving and charging characteristics.This is an area that needs continuous improvement.
Most motors are designed to produce torque and power efficiently, so they are not as symmetrical as generators.Regenerative braking energy requires a good pairing of battery charging technology, while battery technology is changing and regenerative braking is constantly being updated.
Currently, manufacturers are designing modern electric motors for hybrid vehicles.The performance is expected to reach 2500 newtons of torque and 8000 RPM.Technology mature car companies can achieve this level, and have the ability to design custom motor/generator.Remember, you have to control the cost.
Power electronics is the key.Whether traction motor or generator brakes, ultra-low resistance connections, cable and power control systems such as 1200A current are very important, especially when the working voltage is between 24VDC and 750VDC.
Specific cables may be required for individual vehicles, especially when the load reaches 1200A.Most vehicles can use a connection scheme such as Amphenol v06g-e-m63c - 8-n with a processing load of up to 800A (figure 2).Owing to the high rated voltage (2.5kv), the low resistance junction of the silver line can transmit higher power in a lower current.Thus, when the voltage drops, the processing load is as high as 1200A or more.
Figure 2: although these connectors can only handle 800A, the fact that they are rated 2.5kv means that power regulation can be used to achieve high power levels at load time.
Fortunately, most hybrids and power cables are much smaller than 1200A.For example, cable bundles such as TE Connectivity 1648162-1 provide four 75A, 8-gauge electric taps and multiple 12-gauge and 20-gauge connections (figure 3).
Keep in mind that separating the power supply from the signal power will mean isolation.The optoelectronic isolator is also aimed at the next generation of hybrid and electric vehicles, such as the B&B Smartworx 232SPOP4 channel 4 channel port powered optoelectronic isolator power block.Many new automotive single-chip optical isolators and modules are aiming at the needs of hybrid power control, sensor access, embedded communications, display systems, video systems, and audio systems.
Full automatic driving
Not only hybrid cars or electric cars, many exciting new features and systems are coming into our cars.You may look forward to heating the seat when the fully automated car comes out.Fully autonomous vehicles will change everything.
Ford is using high-energy lasers to mark lanes on the snowy roads to ensure the reliable operation of fully automated vehicles.Toyota is building satellite cars that connect and navigate through satellites.Ground connections are also enabled.
The lexus redefined frequent parking, optimized driving and mileage, and aimed at fully autonomous driving and economical manual driving mode.Volvo S90 no longer needs to follow vehicles into self-driving mode.The audi A4 has been tested with a faster camera (60fps video) and a clearer video display.
All vehicles will also be using improved audio and video systems, WiFi, bluetooth, the AI box, charging stations, and other consumer material experiences.Modern companies even use augmented reality systems to guide users to change oil or fuse.Many exciting designs await us.
As with many new technologies, these new features are still novel until the cost is low enough for mass production and quality to reach expectations or mandates.Our ultimate goal is to make these new technologies available to the public.
In a way, we probably don't need the traffic police, especially the drivers.It's not new, it's just people being replaced by machines.