Electric and hybrid cars of the future will need some extra motivation to fast speed or mountain climbing.The development of power transmission of energy/power storage technology is still low emission vehicle commercialization is one of the biggest challenges facing.And its need most is the high specific energy (energy per unit weight or volume) and high-specific power combination of high efficiency and low cost of the system.A feasible solution is mixed concept, including high energy density batteries, such as high power density coupled device of super capacitor.
The design of the super capacitor is used for rapid storage and release a lot of energy of electrochemical energy storage device.They are often referred to as "double layer capacitors", because they will charge storage in the polarization of solid/electrolyte interface.This phenomenon by the available surface area of electrode materials and proper pore size distribution.Carbon aerogels due to its low resistivity (& lt; mohm * 25 cm), controllable pore size distribution (5-500 - A) and high specific surface area and surface area (respectively, 1000 m2 and 500 m2 / g/cm3) and become the ideal electrode materials.Researchers at the Lawrence livermore national laboratory has developed a carbon aerogel electrodes based air condenser.
Air condenser (aerocapacitor) by positive and negative of wafer thin (0.125 mm) of carbon aerogel electrodes.Electrode in the electrolyte wettability of microporous separator to separate.Prototype device has been in water (1 v/cell) and organic electrolytes (3 v/cell) in the assembly.Air condenser water energy and power density is respectively 2 wh/Kg and 8 kw/Kg.These performance value about two orders of magnitude higher than conventional electrolytic capacitor.
Carbon aerogel electrode electric adsorption elements
Researchers have recently developed a new electrochemical separation method of using carbon aerogel electrodes, used for removing the impurity ions from the water.A unit (individual) is composed of two carbon aerogel electrodes.It is not indispensable, at run time without the use of membrane materials.Waste liquid containing dissolved ions need only through a pile of coupled carbon aerogel electrodes, can achieve the purpose of separation.In some simple cases, charged impurities be transmitted to the electrode surface, and can stay in electrostatic is usually 1 to 10 nm (10-100 - a) in the double layer thickness.However, in most cases, for example contains a lot of multivalent oxygen anion or heavy metals liquid waste, separating method is more complex.Physical adsorption and chemical adsorption, electrodeposition, and/or electrophoresis are likely is its main mechanism.Conclusive experimental data of Cr system and LLNL accumulated extensive results support this interpretation.After the stack of saturated, through at 0 V to devolve electricity complete regeneration process, or under 1.2 V by reverse polarization.Reverse polarization can increase the regeneration effect and/or activated carbon aerogel electrodes again.Researchers have shown that in the process of carbon aerogel electrode electric adsorption is better than the previous by activated carbon powder or fill the electrode process of carbon particles.
Electric adsorption studies have been based on aerogel in laboratory scale (10-40 GDP, total dissolved solids is 50-500 PPM, TDS) under processing all kinds of cation and anion.These ions represents the aquifer, the water of the sea and the main material in the storage tank (such as Na +, NH4 +, Cl -, ClO4 -, NO3 -).In addition, many heavy metal ions (copper, zinc, nickel, cadmium, chromium, lead and uranium) can be removed from the waste liquid containing.
The use of carbon aerogel electric adsorption method is free from contamination, efficient.Ions is a potential alternative to other technologies such as reverse osmosis, ion exchange and evaporation of competitive method.This potential applications include for fossil fuels and nuclear power plant boiler water recycling, ultrapure water used in biotechnology and semiconductor processing, softening, household water and dilute salt water and sea water.